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Quantum Resilience Quantum Processor
Introduction There is tremendous amount of hype about quantum computing recently. Governments, corporations, and academic institutions are pouring increasing resources into this field, recognizing its potential to address a wide array of critical scientific and societal challenges. While the technology has begun to impact specific areas, such as the design of efficient batteries for electric vehicles, precision drilling in the oil and gas industry, sophisticated financial analyses, medical research advancements, and improvements in weather prediction models, these applications remain quite narrow. Broader commercial uses hinges on the development of fault-tolerant quantum computing, a goal that still faces many challenges as...
Quantum Resilience Fidelity
According to a recent MIT article, IBM aims to build a 100,000 qubit quantum computer within a decade. Google is aiming even higher, aspiring to release a million qubit computer by by the end of the decade. We witness a continuous push towards larger quantum processors with increasing numbers of qubits. IBM is expected to release a 1,000-qubit processor sometime this year. Quantum computing is on the brink of revolutionizing complex problem-solving. However, the practical implementation of quantum algorithms faces significant challenges due to the error-prone nature and hardware limitations of near-term quantum devices. Focusing solely on the number of...
5G Cloud Architecture
The 5G Core network is a Service Based Architecture. It evolves the traditional appliance based 4G Core Network to support services. It offers more agility and flexibility. The major building blocks of this architecture include Service-Based Interface: The Service Based Interfaces rely on HTTP/2 The 5G Network Functions: As explained by Ericsson “is built using IT network principles and cloud native technology. In this new architecture each Network Function (NF) offers one or more services to other NFs via Application Programming Interfaces (API). Each Network Function (NF) is formed by a combination of small pieces of software code called as...
oran lexicon
The telecoms and digital technologies sectors are notoriously jargonised. Eavesdrop on any conversation at an industry conference (remember those?) and you’d be treated to a parade of acronyms, initialisms and technical terms that would sound like ancient Greek to an outsider. However, with new technologies being developed and deployed at an accelerated rate, staying on top of terminology can be challenging for even seasoned professionals. This is nowhere as apparent as in the evolving debate around Open RAN and its applications. Open RAN and its variations became the next "big thing" in wireless and I thought I'd try and help...
Open RAN Security
It's been a year of contradictions for the telecommunications industry. Like most sectors, it has been heavily impacted by the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic, with a slowdown in global 5G roll-outs being a notable result. Geopolitical conflicts have continued to muddy the market, with governments playing a more active role than ever in setting telecoms-centred policy. At the same time, however, the air is thick with promise and opportunity. Over the last nine months, entire organizations have transitioned to remote working and high-bandwidth video communication. Corporations have accelerated digital transformation initiatives. Online shopping has soared. The appetite for autonomous manufacturing...
5G TSN Manufacturing
In the recent report by IHS Markit - "The 5G Economy - How 5G will contribute to the global economy" - researchers claimed that manufacturing will garner almost $4.7 trillion in sales enablement by 2035. Or 36% of the $13.2 trillion total opportunity of 5G by 2035. Manufacturing will be by far the largest industry beyond mobile to be impacted by 5G. In the manufacturing sector the adoption will benefit in the short-to-medium term from enhanced indoor wireless broadband coverage. Other early use cases include asset tracking such as visibility over incoming and outgoing components and goods in the supply...
5G Cybersecurity Safety
Neil Harbisson calls himself a cyborg. Without the antenna implanted in his skull, he would not be able to see colour of any kind. Born with achromatopsia, a condition of total colourblindness that affects 1 in every 30 000 people, Harbisson's physical faculties are augmented by cyber technology to grant him access to a life of greater meaning and satisfaction. As technological evolution leads to concomitant advances in medical science, we are seeing more and more examples of humans who are integrating devices and sensors into their biological makeup. For some, like those part of the growing "transhumanist" movement, this...
5G SBA IMS MEC Architecture
The interest in 5G and mIoT is exploding. It's exciting to see so many IT and cybersecurity professionals in my network trying to learn more about 5G and related technologies. In addition to my usual articles about the societal impacts of these innovations, I'll start a series of articles introducing key 5G and mIoT technology concepts. Before we move on to technical aspects of 5G security. Let's get started with reviewing the 5G core service-based architecture and learning the first few dozen acronyms, out of approximately a gazillion. The cellular industry loves acronyms. Even more than the cybersecurity industry. 5G architecture is...
Smart Home Wireless Connectivity
In a recent session on smart building cybersecurity, a student cheekily asked me "How did we ever connect anything before 5G?" At that moment I realized I might have been overdoing my 5G cheerleading recently. To atone, here are the key performance and cybersecurity attributes of the most commonly used connectivity technologies in smart home / smart building use cases... And 5G. If you thought that the "traditional" home life is under heavy attack from digitization of media and constant communication, wait until you learn about the Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Homes. Our most personal spaces - our homes...
5G 3GPP Release Timeline
In a major milestone for 5G, 3GPP finalized the Release 16 in July - its second set of specifications for 5G New Radio (NR) technology. As a second article in my series of 5G 101 articles, this is a good opportunity to review the 3GPP process and major 5G-related technical specification releases. As well as to clarify some misconceptions about the 5G development process. This article provides an overview of what is 3GPP and its importance. It also explains the Releases related to 5G including Release 15, 16 and 17. The focus will be on 3GPP Release 16 and 17. Release...
Quantum Mechanics Quantum Computing
Early Theoretical Foundations and Algorithmic Breakthroughs1920 to 1985 - The Conceptual Beginnings1957 - The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett1968 - Conjugate Coding and Stephen Wiesner1970 - James Park and No-Cloning Theorem1980 - Paul Benioff and Quantum Mechanical Models of Computers1981 - Richard Feyman1985 - David Deutsch and the Universal Quantum Computer1994 to 1996 - Quantum Algorithms Emerge1994 - Peter Shor1996 - Lov GroverThe Evolution of Quantum Computing1995 and 1996 - Quantum Error Correction Emerges1995 to present - Physical Realization and Challenges1995 - First Quantum Logic Gate Using Trapped Ions1999 - First Demonstration of Superconducting Qubits2001 - First Experimental Implementation...
Huawei ERNW 5G Source Code Analysis
No, no it doesn’t. Huawei's code might as well be extremely secure. Their code is certainly the most scrutinized. But the recent UDG source code review is not an evidence of security. ERNW, an independent IT security service provider in Germany, recently performed a technical review / audit of Huawei’s Unified Distributed Gateway (UDG) source code. Huawei made the summary report available here . The review focused on the quality of the source code and the source code management practices. The report is overall positive and showed that Huawei has significantly improved its software engineering processes. At least for the UDG...
IoT Protocols Speed Range
IoT Wireless Protocols data rate and range comparison in a spreadsheet format. Includes downloadable Excel spreadsheet.
IoT Protocols Speed Range
IoT Wireless Protocols in a spreadsheet format. Includes downloadable Excel spreadsheet.
5G Virtualization
Depending on who you speak to, 5G is either humankind’s greatest imminent blessing or its greatest imminent curse. Still in its infancy, and not yet commercially standardized, this technology has already been the most polarizing advancement we have ever seen in communication. Consumers worldwide are captivated by promises of super-fast download speeds, split-second responsiveness and next-level mobile phone communication, but are divided on the possible sacrifices of privacy and security. Detractors continue to issue condemnations of 5G cellular’s possible health risks. Supporters continue to shake their heads in disbelief. Governments jostle for geopolitical supremacy; 5G is seen as both a proxy...